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- The Ministry of Health has now released provisional annual suicide figures for 2016. Their information shows there were 553 confirmed suicides. This included 135 Māori suicides, of which two-thirds were Māori males. The Māori suicide rate was then, in 2016, 20.3 per 100,000 tangata. This is much higher than other ethnic groups, as the New Zealand overall suicide rate is 11.5 per 100,000 people. However, why the Ministry of Health releases its data so late is unclear – the Ministry of Justice has already released provisional annual suicide figures for 2018. Unfortunately, that shows a rise to 142 Māori suicides, with the rate being 23 per 100,000 tangata. The Māori suicide rate is circa 40 percent higher than a decade ago – and shows a demand for improved mental health services and support, and in general terms supports the Tribunal’s view that the health sector is underserving Māori.
- In June Statistics New Zealand published data tables from the 2018 New Zealand General Social Survey (NZGSS). We will provide a further analysis next week, but positively we note it shows 77 percent of Māori have high life satisfaction, and 75 percent rate their whānau wellbeing as high, despite only 50 percent stating they have enough money to meet their everyday basic needs.
- Last weekend Te Pou Matakana hosted a hui to discuss Māori child wellbeing, and specifically Māori child ‘uplifts’ by Oranga Tamariki. Te Pou Matakana has determined to hold its own inquiry into this area – which makes it the fourth inquiry announced within a few weeks on this topic – but the first inquiry by and for Māori. Te Pou Matakana will hold four wananga to identify key themes to inform their inquiry. Pānui 21/2019 discusses Oranga Tamariki and child uplift matters in depth.
- Earlier this month the Minister for Women, Julie Anne Genter, announced $6.2 million will be allocated to progress the Crown’s engagement with the Waitangi Tribunal’s Mana Wāhine Treaty of Waitangi Claim (WAI 2700). By way of background, the Mana Wāhine Inquiry derives from statements of claims made in a number of individual iwi/hapū claims, and from a specific claim lodged in 1993, (WAI 381), on behalf of the Māori Women’s Welfare League and all Māori women. Amongst other matters the claimants allege that, “Māori women individually, as tribal members, family members and leaders have been systematically deprived of their spiritual, cultural, social and economic well-being by Crown actions and policies in breach of Articles II and III of the Treaty of Waitangi; and that The Crown has not fulfilled its obligations ‘to protect and ensure the rangatiratanga of Māori women…”
- The Office of Māori Crown Relations –/Te Arawhiti has launched Te Haeata, an online tool for entities with Treaty settlement responsibilities such as post-settlement entities, Crown entities, local and regional government and other relevant organisations. tehaeata.govt.nz
- The Kaingaroa Forest Village has been awarded $2.4 million from the Māori Housing Network Community Development programme for the development of housing for the Kaingaroa community.
- Last week a group of Taranaki Whānui members, who call their grouping ‘Mau Whenua’ filed legal proceedings against the Port Nicholson Block Settlement Trust relating to the Trust’s selling of iwi land in Shelly Bay, Wellington. The trust proceeded with the sale despite objections from these iwi members.
[By way of background, this large parcel of land was returned to the iwi as commercial redress in its 2009 Treaty settlement (i.e. brought by the iwi). However, as a pricey commercial asset, it made a poor financial return each year, as it only received income from low-end rentals of old buildings and the like. This situation has undoubtedly been a significant contributing factor to the iwi losing millions of dollars since their settlement. To address this, in 2016 trustees sought a mandate to sell some of the land for housing development – but that was voted down. That is because many iwi members do not see the land as a commercial asset at all – rather as cultural redress and their heritage which should be retained for future generations. (Note the vote was 51% in favour of sale, but 75% support was needed for a major commercial transaction.) However, under the current leadership of Chair, Wayne Mulligan, the sales and property development imperative has moved forward, but this time as discrete smaller parcels of land – thus avoiding any need for further iwi voting on the matter. So, the core issue at hand for iwi members who oppose this is whether the four smaller land transactions undertaken by the Trust have effectively circumvented the will of beneficiaries to retain the land, and resulted in unlawful sales. Adding to this is concern about allegedly low prices received for the land – said to be circa $2 million per block – when the iwi’s purchasing price was circa $13 million.
 The NZGSS is a biennial survey which provides information on the well-being of New Zealanders aged 15 years and over. The survey covers a wide range of social and economic outcomes across different groups across the population.
- The Mōkai Pātea Waitangi Claims Trust is seeking a mandate to settle their claims, and consultation hui for that are in train for iwi members; and
- Rangitihi is in the process of setting up its Post-Settlement Governance Entity (PSGE), to look after its settlement when it lands, and iwi consultation hui for this are also scheduled.
- Applications are open for Te Uru Rākau’s (Forestry New Zealand) Ngā Karahipi Uru Rākau scholarships. The scholarships provide $8,000 a year to six Māori or female students enrolling in either a Bachelor of Forestry Science or Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) in Forest Engineering at the University of Canterbury. Scholarship recipients also receive a paid internship with Te Uru Rākau or other forestry employers.
- Presently there are continuing media articles on the financial affairs of the Port Nicholson Settlement Trust. Some current trustees are alleging that past financial mismanagement, including unpaid invoices, gave them little choice in having to on-sell land-based assets to property developers. However, a past Chief Executive is refuting such claims, indicating the financial situation was dire from an early time period, and that he had actually been addressing the matters to stabilise the Trust. (We have elected not to provide further details as the financial statements of this Trust are not available to review: however, it is clear there remains bitter division within the iwi, particularly in relation to whether Shelly Bay land ought to have been sold.)
- As advised last week, Budget 2019/20 contained $42 million of funding to restart an educational programme called Te Kōtahitanga. We advise that this week the responsible Minister, Kelvin Davis, gave this initiative its own post-Budget announcement. It will now be known as Te Hurihanganui, and the funds will be used to ‘boost the capability of the education workforce to better support Māori’. (Pānui 19/2019 refers.)
- The Media Sector Shift Advisory Panel has been announced. Members are: Graham Pryor (Chair); Quinton Hita, Lynell Huria, Cherie Tirikatene Le Cheminant, and Julian Wilcox.
These appointments are long overdue, as the review was announced last October, and Te Puni Kōkiri has already completed a stock take of the sector, effectively shaping the questions up for consideration by this panel (Pānui 16/2019 refers). The review is supposed to ‘explore the most effective and efficient way of funding and producing re reo and tīkanga Māori content, and structuring the Māori media sector, to achieve the best outcomes’. I.e. operational questions such as how many iwi radio stations should be funded, whether Māori television should receive more direct funding rather than via Te Mangai Pāho, and how can a Māori media production sector be developed or arise from the stocktake. Given resource limitations for this sector, a number of these issues present as fairly tough operational policy questions for the panel to consider and advise on. Minister Nanaia Mahuta has advised her Cabinet colleagues that she intends to come back to them later this year with her change proposals.
- Shane Taurima (Rongomaiwahine, Ngāti Kahungunu) has been appointed chief executive of Māori Television.
- Kristy Maria Roa (Ngāti Maniapoto, Ngāti Apakura) has won the 2019 Ahuwhenua Young Māori Farmer Award.
- Eugene and Pania King of Kiriroa Station (Matawai, north west of Gisborne) have been named the winners of the 2019 Ahuwhenua Trophy for the top Māori sheep and beef farm.
Queen’s Birthday Honours
The following New Zealand Honours and Queen’s Service awards were conferred to Māori, or people giving services to Māori, on 03 June 2019.
To be Dames Companion of the said Order:
- Mrs Areta Koopu, CBE. For services to Māori and the community.
To be Companions of the said Order:
- Ms Roma Balzer, QSO, of Hamilton. For services to family violence prevention.
- The Reverend John Marsden, QSO, JP, of Auckland. For services to Māori and the community.
To be Officers of the said Order:
- Dr Candy Cox. For services to health, particularly suicide prevention.
- Major General Peter Te Aroha Emile Kelly, MNZM (Rtd.). For services to the New Zealand Defence Force.
- Mr Michael King. For services to mental health awareness and suicide prevention.
- Mr Cletus Maanu Paul, JP. For services to Māori.
To be Members of the said Order:
- Dr Fiona Cram. For services to Māori health and education.
- Mr James Davis. For services to Māori art, the Catholic Church and the community.
- Mr Tane Davis. For services to conservation.
- Dr Hinemoa Elder. For services to psychiatry and Māori.
- Mrs Sarah Hirini. For services to rugby.
- Ms Rose Morgan. For services to victim support.
- Ms Pango Mary-Anne Pitman. For services to Māori and family violence prevention.
The Queen’s Service Medal (QSM)
- Mrs Pare Anderson. For services to Māori language education.
- Mr Tiwana Aranui. For services to Māori and education.
- Mr Sydney Tamou Kershaw. For services to Māori performing arts and the community.
- Mrs Josephine Hinehou Mortensen, JP. For services to Māori and the arts.
- Mrs Evelyn Nukumai-te-Mangai Ratima. For services to Māori and the community.
- Ms Christine Puarata Smith. For services to Māori art.
- Ms Juanita Whitiaera Timutimu. For services to criminal justice programmes and the community.
- Mrs Martha Mahuri Tipene. For services to Māori.
- Mrs Ida White. For services to Māori art.
The New Zealand Distinguished Service Decoration (DSD)
- Mr Daniel Lawrence Broughton, MNZM. For services to the New Zealand Defence Force.
Last week the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment announced the successful recipients for the Te Pūnaha Hihiko – Vision Mātauranga Capability Fund. Thirty-one projects will receive funding, as outlined below.
|Organisation name||Title||Other organisations involved||Funding
|AgResearch Ltd||Understanding the Attributes of Mamaku: Adding Science to Mātauranga Rongoā
|Ora Innovation Group Ltd||$100,000|
|Homegrown feed alternatives aligned with socio-cultural values and economic objectives||Te Manawa o Tuhoe Trust||$100,000|
|Arahura Holding Limited||He Tangata, He Tangata, He Tangata – Leveraging social cohesion theory, approaches and models to enhance hapu economic development and prosperity||Te Rūnanga o Onuku (Onuku Rūnanga Incorporated)||$180,000|
|Auckland Museum Trust Board||Tira me te Wa – Flora and Fauna||Ngāti Kuri Trust||$99,200|
|Digital Sensing Ltd||River Sensors||Environment River Patrol – Aotearoa||$100,000|
|GNS Science||Te Ahi Tipua ki Tahorakuri A1 Section 30: establishing an economic development plan for hapū in degraded geothermal environments||Tahorakuri A1 Section 30 Trust||$100,000|
|Tātaihia te Parataiao o Te Wahapū: Hokianga Harbour sedimentation||Te Rarawa Anga Mua||$100,000|
|Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd||Baseline surveys to support kaitiakitanga of Russell State Forest, a diverse ngahere in Northland||Te Roopu for Russell State Forest||$100,000|
|Lincoln University||Revitalising whenua whanau connections through productive landscape design||Okarea Land Trust||$180,000|
|Building Capability to Secure Indigenous Flora Taonga: design, evolution and implementation of a partnership model of Seed Banking||Tanenuiarangi Manawatu Incorporated for Rangitane o Manawatu, Muaūpoko Tribal Authority||$180,000|
|Building biosecurity capability to protect a taonga – growing iwi skills as part of the fight against kauri dieback.||Ngā Maunga Whakahii o Kaipara Development Trust||$100,000|
|Understanding Rēwena Tuatahi – a traditional Māori product||Koa Holdings Ltd||$100,000|
|Manaaki Te Awanui||Kei Hea nga Papaka||NIWA||$100,000|
|Mātangireia Waka Trust||Te Ahu o Rehua: A Network for Cross Cultural Ocean Knowledge||University of Waikato||$100,000|
|National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd||Nga Tai ki Uta – Seas to the Mountains||Manaaki Te Awanui||$180,000|
|Ngā Motu Tapu o Wharekauri – Contaminants in Kai in the Chatham Islands||Te Aitanga o Ngā Uri o Wharekauri||$100,000|
|Te Hokai Waikare Ora||Ngāti Ruapani ki Waikaremoana||$180,000|
|Ngati Rahiri Hapū o Te Atiawa (Taranaki) Incorporated Society||The Hangi||CRL Energy||$100,000|
|Owhaoko A East & A1B Trust||Awheto: understanding the power of an ancient taonga and learning how to grow it||Individual Researchers: Iona Weir, Ian Hall, Noel Porter||$100,000|
|Patuharakeke Te Iwi||Ka pū te ruha, ka hao te rangatahi||NIWA||$180,000|
|SCION||Kāuta: E hononga mo nga tangata manaaki tangata (Traditional hearths: Bringing people together)||The Tau Iho I Te Po Trust||$100,000|
|Tahuri Whenua Incorporated Society||E moe tonu ana te tohetaka, kaore ano i kohera||School of Agriculture and Environment at Massey University||$100,000|
|Te Arawa Ki Tai Charitable Trust||Restoring Ongatoro Mauri – integrating Mātauranga and Science to monitor Health of Ongatoro, Maketu Estuary and Kaituna River re-diversion impacts to empower Ahi Kaa, the inter-generational traditional users, in Kaitiakitanga to sustain their Mahinga Kai||University of Waikato Coastal Marine Group||$100,000|
|Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Limited||Coastal Waka Development||QPR Ltd||$100,000|
|Ōnuku Rūnanga Incorporated||Te kai nui mai i Akaroa||Lincoln University||$100,000|
|The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited||Mātai koiora aronga whanokē (unprecedented biological innovation): Increasing bi-cultural research capability for the development of high value bioactive products derived from taonga species||Nga Uri o te Ngahere Trust||$180,000|
|Tu Tama Wahine O Taranaki Incorporated||He Punaha Hohourongo||Tu Tama Wahine O Taranaki Incorporated||$180,000|
|University of Waikato||Toitū te noho: Creating healthy relationships with our environment for future generations||Ngāti Tamaterā Treaty Trust||$180,000|
|University of Otago||Connecting the People: Facilitating the Communication of Te Tiaki Mahinga Kai Research, Mātauranga, and Cultural Knowledge within Communities||Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu||$180,000|
|Modelling harvest in customary protected areas||Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu||$180,000|
|Wakatu Incorporation||An Innovation Pathway for New High-Value Industries in the Nutrition and Wellness Food and Beverage Sector||Edible Research Ltd||$180,000|
This week Stephen Henare appeared in the High Court on five charges of stealing from Parengarenga 3G (the charges were ‘theft by person in special relationship’, as he was a trustee). He was also charged with attempting to pervert the course of justice. Parengarenga 3G Trust manages a 512ha forestry block of Māori land in Te Taitokerau. Mr Henare’s sister, Margaret Dixon, had already pleaded guilty to stealing with him, with funds taken in 2012-2013 being circa $1.1 million – leaving the Trust with only $150 in its bank account, not enough to manage its forestry operations, thereby causing even more losses. Mr Henare started the week with a not-guilty plea; but by Thursday had changed his plea to guilty. He was subsequently convicted by Justice Matthew Muir and will be sentenced later this year.
- Reikura Kahi (Waikato, Ngāti Hine, Ngāti Porou, Te Whānau-a-Apanui) has been appointed to Te Mātāwai Board)
- The Minister of Conservation, Eugenie Sage, and the Minister of Fisheries, Stuart Nash, announced that the Government will progress with the larger of two proposed options (recommended by the South East Marine Forum) for a South East Marine protected network. The proposed marine area is situated from Timaru in South Canterbury, to Waipapa Point in Southland and covers 1,267 square km.
- On Wednesday the Otago Regional Council voted in favour of two Ngai Tahu iwi representatives sitting on the council’s policy committee. The Ngai Tahu iwi representatives will have voting rights and will receive renumeration for their role (20% of what others receive); however the iwi positions are only guaranteed for the duration of the current triennium; meaning incoming councillors will be required to re-debate the matter following the elections scheduled for this October.
- This week Statistics New Zealand released Māori population estimates for the year ending 31 December 2018. As at 31 December 2018 the estimated Māori population was 744,900. This is an increase of 10,600 from the previous year. The median Māori age is 24.1 years. The median age for Māori males is 23.1 years and 26.1 years for Māori females.
- On Thursday Te Puni Kōkiri, Te Māngai Pāho and Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori (Māori Language Commission) signed a Memorandum of Understanding and announced a range of rangatahi-focused te reo initiatives which will be rolled out over the year as part of the implementation of Te Maihi Karauna Māori language strategy. The te reo initiatives include online language lessons, rangatahi workshops and a national youth te reo Māori summit
- Waitohiariki Quayle (Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairarapa) has been ordained as an Anglican Bishop of Te Upoko o Te Ika o Maui. Archbishop Waitohiariki is the first female in Aotearoa to be ordained as a Bishop.
- Rachel Taulelei (Ngāti Raukawa, Ngāti Rarua, Ngāti Koata) has been named a recipient of the Kea World Class New Zealand Award for her contribution to the sustainable food industry and her ongoing work promoting Aotearoa as a world-class producer of food and beverages.
- Philip Broughton (Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāi Tahu) has been appointed to the NZ on Air board.
- Last Saturday Ngāti Hinerangi (Matamata) and the Crown signed a Deed of Settlement. The deed provides for financial redress of $8.1 million, the return of 14 sites of cultural significance, a cultural revitalisation fund, and five commercial properties. https://www.govt.nz/treaty-settlement-documents/ngati-hinerangi/
- On Tuesday the Minister of Justice, Andrew Little, announced details on the Cannabis Referendum, which is to be held with the General Election in 2020. This will help to determine whether personal use of recreational cannabis should be legalised. Voters will be given the opportunity to answer a simple Yes or No question on the matter, and if the yes vote prevails Parliament will then need to consider enacting legislation to put that into effect. The provisos are that there will be a minimum purchasing age of 20, there will be regulations to control commercial supply, limited home-growing options, and an educational programme. We advise the New Zealand Health Survey 2015, indicates up to 25% of Māori adults used cannabis at least once within a twelve-month period (in the years 2013/2014). In 2018 41% of people convicted of a cannabis offence were Maori.Proactive release – Cabinet paper – 2020 Cannabis Referendum – 7 May 2019.pdf
- On Wednesday the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill was introduced in Parliament (the Zero Carbon Bill). The Bill, if passed into law, will set a legally binding objective for the Government to seek to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius. The Bill also sets a target for a 10 per cent reduction in biological methane emissions by 2030 – which will likely impact on all Māori agri-busineses. An independent Climate Change Commission would also be established via the Bill to provide advice on Government’s five yearly targets. www.parliament.nz/en/pb/bills-and-laws/bills-proposed-laws/document/BILL_87861/climate-change-response-zero-carbon-amendment-bill
- The Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment has released discussion papers on the Plant Variety Rights Act 1987 and impacts for Māori. This is because this legislation, is being reviewed, and the Ministry is aware of concerns raised by Māori on plant cultivation, particularly through the WAI 262 claim (sometimes called the Flora and Fauna claim). Subscribers working in this sector can view the documents here https://www.mbie.govt.nz/document-library/search?keywords=Wai+262&df=01%2F04%2F2019&dt=30%2F04%2F2019&sort=&start=10
- Last week the Government opened an onshore petroleum block offer tender (i.e. a tender for oil exploration rights in Taranaki). Permit holders are now explicitly required to engage with iwi on an ongoing basis, with specific early engagement requirements in relation to activities to be undertaken within 200 metres of areas of significance to iwi. Ngāti Ruanui iwi leader, Debbie Ngarewa-Packer, however has noted the 200 metres is less than what had already been established between iwi and oil companies (which is a 500 metre gap). Other iwi leaders have expressed concern the onshore activity prevents them from undertaking complete land and farm management activities, as they are not sure if and when oil companies will seek to enact any drilling rights they may acquire.
- The Prime Minister, Jacinda Arden, has announced the establishment of a ‘National New Energy Development centre’ in Taranaki. It’s stated purpose being to ‘help lead New Zealand’s transition to a low carbon future’. The Government has set aside $27 million for its establishment, and operating funding of $5 million per a
- Justice Joseph Victor Williams (Ngāti Pūkenga and Te Arawa (Waitaha, Tapuika) has been appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court.
- Jamie Tuuta ((Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Tama, Te Ati Awa,Taranaki Tuturu) has been appointed Chair of the New Zealand Tourism Board (known as Tourism New Zealand)
- This week Statistics NZ advised that due to Census 2018 information being incomplete, it will not be able to produce data on iwi affiliations (when it finally does release census data). This has caused some anguish from various Māori leaders and commentators, as this data is used in a variety of ways, not least of which is to confirm iwi size for Treaty settlement purposes. In our view, while Statistics NZ obviously cannot undo past poor work, it can and probably should do further surveying in this area so that iwi have a sense of the scale of the issues they are working with. For example, iwi groups developing education plans need to know how many, and where their tamariki are within the schooling system.
- Applications are now open for the annual Te Wai Māori Trust – Wai Ora Fund. The purpose of the fund is to assist Iwi and Māori to promote and advance freshwater fisheries development, research and education. The fund value is $250,000. Applications close 5 June 2018.
- This week Ngahiwi Tomoana (Ngāti Kahungunu) has been re-elected as chairman of Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Mr Tomoana has declared that this will be his final term as chairman.
- This week Nuk Korako, a former Chair of the Māori Affairs Select Committee under the last Government, gave his valedictory speech with his retirement from Parliament. Below is a pertinent extract from his kōrero
“I want to turn to our Māori people, because I believe it is time to switch your political allegiance back to yourself, to your own tino rakatirataka. The political tribalism of saying we only vote for the party is not doing us any favours. You must demand on every politician that walks across your marae ātea that they show you the proof of their commitment to working hard for you before you give them your vote, because talk is cheap, whānau. Actions, ringa raupā—the callused hands—those are what spoke loudly to our conservative tīpuna, and it is time to demand politicians show you their calloused hands, their ringa raupā, as evidence of what they have achieved for you.”
Nuk Korako, 1 May 2019
- Briar Grace-Smith (Ngāpuhi) has been appointed to the Arts Council of New Zealand Toi Aotearoa (Creative NZ).
- Shaun Awatere (Ngāti Porou) has been appointed to the National Climate Change Risk Assessment panel. The panel is tasked with creating the framework for New Zealand’s first National Climate Change Risk Assessment. The framework is to be completed by the end of June.
- Acushla Dee Sciascia (Ngāruahine Rangi, Ngāti Ruanui and Te Āti Awa) has been appointed to the National Climate Change Risk Assessment panel.
- Niwa Nuri (Te Arawa and Te Whakatohea), Matt Te Pou (Ngāi Tuhoe), and Bonita Bigham (Ngā Ruahine and Te Atiawa) have been appointed to the Lottery Oranga Marae Committee.
- The Ministry of Health released maternity data for 2017. The report shows 14,892 (25%) were Māori; and that Māori women continue to have the nation’s highest birth rate of 90.6 per 1,000 Māori females of reproductive age. https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/report-maternity-2017
- The Government has announced increased independent monitoring of Oranga Tamariki, via the use of the Ombudsman, and the upcoming introduction of National Care Standards. These actions are to better protect children in State care, most of whom are Māori. https://www.orangatamariki.govt.nz/news/care-standards-support-tamariki-and-caregivers/#_blank
- Te Puni Kōkiri has awarded the Taumarunui Community Kōkiri Trust $2.1 million from the Whānau and Community Development Investment programme. The funding will go towards the cost of repairing up to 20 homes, the development and implementation of home maintenance programmes and supporting whānau into home ownership across the Taumarunui and Te Kuiti rohe.
- This week Des Ratima lodged an urgent application with the Waitangi Tribunal, (Wai 2882), concerning the proposed reform of the vocational education sector. (In brief these reforms propose merging all polytechnics and industry training organisations in one new entity, to commence from next year.) Mr Ratima is a current board member of Skills Active Aotearoa, which is one of the industry training organisations that would be disestablished if the reforms go ahead. Mr Ratima claims that the Crown has breached the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi in how it has consulted about the reforms, and that the reforms may result in poorer outcomes for Māori trainees.
- Last week Pae Aronui, a skills and employment programme for rangatahi Māori, was launched in Hamilton. Pae Aronui aims to support and develop employment skills for rangatahi not in employment, education or training (NEET).
- This week the Associate Minister of Education Kelvin Davis announced in 2020 Te Tai Tokerau will pilot Te Kawa Matakura an education programme which aims to develop young Māori leaders through mātauranga and te reo Māori. The pilot will target two groups 15-18 year olds attending formal education; and 15-25 year olds no longer attend formal education but display the necessary qualities and potential. All participates will be required to be endorsed by iwi and whānau.
 Median age for Māori women who give birth was 26 years compared to 30 years for all women.